the Power of Philosophy

Students who study Philosophy gain skills, such as critical thinking and critical reading, that are sought by employers in every field. In fact, Philosophy majors are among the top scorers on graduate exams like the GRE and LSAT.

Mean GRE Scores By Intended Graduate Field, 2011-2012 Source: Educational Testing Service, “GRE Guide to the Use of Scores” (

Charts by Ty Fagan and Matty Silverstein


Scores range from 130-170


English LiteratureEnglish Literature157

Art HistoryArt History156











Scores range from 130-170









Political SciencePolitical Science151

Art HistoryArt History149

English LiteratureEnglish Literature148



Analytical Writing

Scores range from 0-6


English LiteratureEnglish Literature4.3

Art HistoryArt History4.2


Political SciencePolitical Science4.2










Mean LSAT and GMAT Scores by Intended Undergraduate Major

Sources: Michael Nieswiadomy, “LSAT Scores of Economics Majors Journal of Economic Education 41, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 331-3 Graduate Management Admission Council, “Profile of GMAT Candidates” (

Law School Admission Test

Required by U.S. Law Schools
2007-2008 Tests; Scores range from 120-180





English LiteratureEnglish Literature155.2


Art HistoryArt History154.2

Political SciencePolitical Science153.1




Graduate Management Admission Test

Required by U.S. Business Schools
2010-2011 Tests; Scores range from 200-800







English LiteratureEnglish Literature564

Political SciencePolitical Science555



Do Philosophy Majors make any Money?

Annual Salaries and Salary Growth by Undergraduate Major Source: “Salary Increase by Major” Wall Street Journal (

Annual Salary

Median salary of mid-career graduates without higher degrees Data collected in 2008






Political SciencePolitical Science78200




English LiteratureEnglish Literature64700

Art HistoryArt History61900



Salary Growth

Increase from starting to mid-career median salary of graduates without higher degrees Data collected in 2008




Political SciencePolitical Science91.7%


Art HistoryArt History81.3%


English LiteratureEnglish Literature70.3%






Who Studies Philosophy?

Grace Lee Boggs, social activist and philosopher
Bachelor’s Degree, Barnard College, 1935
PhD, Bryn Mawr College, 1940

Stokely Carmichael / Kwame Ture, civil rights leader
Bachelor’s Degree, Howard University, 1964

Angela Davis, social activist and philosopher
Bachelor’s Degree, Brandeis University, 1965
Master’s Degree, University of California San Diego, 1968
PhD, Humboldt University of Berlin, 1969

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., civil rights leader
Taught social philosophy at Morehouse College, 1961

Robert Parris Moses, educator and civil rights activist
Bachelor’s Degree, Hamilton College, 1956
Master’s Degree, Harvard University, 1957

Doria ShafikEgyptian feminist activist
PhD, Sorbonne University in Paris, 1939

Trey Anastasio, musician (Phish)
Philosophy major (no degree earned), University of Vermont, 1983–1986

Wes Anderson, filmmaker
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Texas at Austin, 1990

Kurt Braunohler, comedian
Bachelor’s Degree, Johns Hopkins University, 1998

Ethan Coen, filmmaker (of the Coen Brothers)
Bachelor’s Degree, Princeton University, 1979

Stephen Colbert, comedian and TV host
Philosophy major (no degree earned), Hampden-Sydney College, 1982–1984

Adam Conover, comedian
Bachelor’s Degree, Bard College, 2004

Wes Craven, filmmaker
Master’s Degree, Johns Hopkins University, 1964

Arthur Danto, art critic and philosopher
PhD, Columbia University, 1952

Lana Del Rey, singer-songwriter
Bachelor’s Degree, Fordham University, 2008

Dessa, rapper, singer, and poet
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Minnesota, 2003

Harrison Ford, actor
Philosophy major (no degree earned), Ripon College, 1960–1964

Richard Gere, actor
Philosophy major (no degree earned), University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1967–1969

Ricky Gervais, comedian and creator of The Office
Bachelor’s Degree, University College London, 1983

Philip Glass, composer
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Chicago, 1956

Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons and Futurama
Bachelor’s Degree (studied philosophy but did not declare any major), Evergreen State College, 1977

Juan Luis Guerra, musician
Philosophy major (no degree earned), Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, ca. 1975

Chris Hardwick, comedian, TV host, and founder of
Bachelor’s Degree, University of California Los Angeles, 1995

Theo James, actor
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Nottingham, 2007 

Zola Jesus, musician
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Wisconsin Madison, 2010

Duncan Jones, director, producer, screenwriter
Bachelor’s Degree, The College of Wooster, 1995
Graduate studies (no degree earned), Vanderbilt University, 1995–1997

Rashida Jones, actor
Bachelor’s Degree, Harvard University, 1997

Kennedy, TV personality and former MTV VJ
Bachelor’s Degree, University of California Los Angeles, 2005

Stacy London, stylist and host of What Not To Wear
Bachelor’s Degree, Vassar College, 1991

Natasha Lyonne, actor
Philosophy major (no degree earned), New York University, 1995–1996

Terrence Malick, filmmaker (The Thin Red Line)
Bachelor’s Degree, Harvard University, 1965
Rhodes Scholarship at Magdalen College Oxford, 1966–1968
Taught philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1968

Steve Martin, comedian, actor, and musician
Philosophy major (no degree earned), California State University Long Beach, 1963–1967

Deepa Mehta, director and screenwriter
Bachelor’s Degree, University of New Delhi, circa 1971

Moby, musician
Philosophy major (no degree earned), University of Connecticut, ca. 1983

Robert Motherwell, painter and printmaker
Bachelor’s Degree, Stanford University, 1936

Kumail Nanjiani, comedian, actor, and writer
Bachelor’s Degree, Grinnell College, 2001

Barnett Newman, painter
Bachelor’s Degree, City College of New York, 1927

Olmeca, hip-hop artist
Bachelor’s Degree, California State University Los Angeles, 2004

Annabel Park, documentary filmmaker
Bachelor’s Degree, Boston University, 1991

Adrian Piper, conceptual artist and philosopher
Bachelor’s Degree, City College of New York, 1974
PhD, Harvard University, 1981

Steve Reich, composer
Bachelor’s Degree, Cornell University, 1957

Buffy Sainte-Marie, singer-songwriter
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1983

Susan Sarandon, actor
Bachelor’s Degree (minor), Catholic University of America, 1969

Willard Scott, actor
Bachelor’s Degree, American University, 1953

Wallace Shawn, actor and playwright
Bachelor’s Degree (Philosophy, Politics, & Economics), Magdalen College Oxford, 1968

Gene Siskel, film critic
Bachelor’s Degree, Yale University, 1967

Elliott Smith, singer-songwriter, musician
Bachelor’s Degree, Hampshire College, 1991

Kim Thayil, musician (Soundgarden)
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Washington, 1985<bachelor’s></bachelor’s>

Alex Trebek, host of Jeopardy!
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Ottawa, 1961

Christy Turlington, model
Bachelor’s Degree, New York University, 1999

Rabbi Ari Berman, president of Yeshiva University
Bachelor’s Degree, Yeshiva University, 1991
Master’s Degree, Yeshiva University, 1994

Rev. Calvin O. Butts III, president of the State University of New York College at Old Westbury
Bachelor’s Degree, Morehouse College, 1972

Noam Chomsky, professor, activist, author, and public intellectual
Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Grant Cornwell, president of Rollins College
Bachelor’s Degree, St. Lawrence University, 1979
PhD, University of Chicago, 1989

John J. DeGioia, president of Georgetown University
PhD, Georgetown University, 1995

William Dudley, president of Washington & Lee University
Bachelor’s Degree, Williams College, 1989
PhD, Northwestern University, 1998

Vivia Fowler, president of Wesleyan College
PhD (Psychological and Philosophical Foundations of Education), University of South Carolina, 1994

Marjorie Hass, president of Rhodes College
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1987
PhD, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1993

Rev. John I. Jenkins, president of University of Notre Dame
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Notre Dame, 1976
Master’s Degree, University of Notre Dame, 1978

Lynn Pasquerella, president of the Association of American Colleges & Universities and former president of Mount Holyoke College
Bachelor’s Degree, Mount Holyoke College, 1980
PhD, Brown University, 1985

Cornel West, philosopher, activist, and public intellectual
PhD, Princeton University, 1980

Herbert Allison Jr., former Fannie Mae CEO
Bachelor’s Degree, Yale University, 1965

Sheila Bair, former FDIC chair
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Kansas, 1975

Stewart Butterfield, co-founder of Flickr
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Victoria, 1996
Master’s Degree, University of Cambridge, 1998

Patrick Byrne, founder of
PhD, Stanford University, 1995

Chris Dixon, internet entrepreneur and investor
Bachelor’s Degree, Columbia University, 1996
Master’s Degree, Columbia University, 1999

Paul Draper, winemaker
Bachelor’s Degree, Stanford University, 1959

Carly Fiorina, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard and presidential candidate
Bachelor’s Degree, Stanford University, 1976

Paul Graham, computer scientist and venture capitalist
Bachelor’s Degree, Cornell University, 1986 

Robert Greenhill, investment banker
Bachelor’s Degree, Yale University, 1958

Jeffrey Gundlach, investor
Bachelor’s Degree, Dartmouth College 1981

Reid Hoffman, co-founder of LinkedIn
Master’s Degree, Wolfson College Oxford, 1993

Damon Horowitz, entrepreneur and in-house philosopher at Google
PhD, Stanford University, 2007

Carl Icahn, investor and former CEO of TWA Airlines
Bachelor’s Degree, Princeton University, 1957

Jessica Jackley, entrepreneur and co-founder of Kiva
Bachelor’s Degree, Bucknell University, 2000

Gerald Levin, former CEO of Time Warner, Inc.
Bachelor’s Degree, Haverford College, 1960

Bill Miller, investor, fund manager, and philanthropist
Doctoral studies, Johns Hopkins University, 1970s

John Mackey, co-founder and co-CEO of Whole Foods Market
Philosophy major (no degree earned), University of Texas at Austin and Trinity University, ca. 1975–1977

Richard Moross, founder of MOO
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Sussex, 2000

Lachlan Murdoch, media magnate and son of Rupert Murdoch
Bachelor’s Degree, Princeton University, 1994

Erika Nardini, CEO of Barstool Sports
Bachelor’s Degree, Colby College, 1998

Max Palevsky, co-founder of Intel and venture capitalist
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Chicago, 1948
Graduate studies at University of Chicago, University of California Berkeley, and University of California Los Angeles

Amy Prieto, CEO/CSO of Prieto Battery and professor of chemistry at Colorado State University
Bachelor’s Degree, Williams College, 1996

Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia
Bachelor’s Degree, Reed College, 1991
PhD, Ohio State University, 2000

George Soros, investor and philanthropist
Bachelor’s Degree, London School of Economics, 1951

Peter Thiel, founder of PayPal
Bachelor’s Degree, Stanford University, 1989

William “Bro” Adams, former chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities and former university president
Bachelor’s Degree, Colorado College, 1972
Fulbright Fellowship, Ecole des Haute Etudes and Ecole Normale Superieure, 1977–1978
PhD (History of Consciousness), University of California Santa Cruz, 1982

Karen Bass, member of the US House of Representatives
Studied philosophy at San Diego State University (no degree earned), 1971–1973

William Bennett, Secretary of Education and best-selling author
Bachelor’s Degree, Williams College, 1965
PhD, University of Texas at Austin, 1970

David L. Boren, former US Senator, former Governor of Oklahoma, and president of University of Oklahoma
Master’s Degree (Philosophy, Politics, and Economics), Oxford University, 1965

Stephen Breyer, Supreme Court Justice
Bachelor’s Degree, Stanford University, 1959

Patrick Buchanan, politician
Bachelor’s Degree, Georgetown University, 1960

Pete Buttigieg, politician
Bachelor’s Degree (Philosophy, Politics, and Economics), Oxford University, 2007

Bill Clinton, US President
Rhodes Scholarship at University College Oxford, 1968–1970

Chris Coons, US Senator
Master’s Degree (Ethics), Yale Divinity School, 1994

Rudolf Giuliani, former New York City mayor and presidential candidate
Bachelor’s Degree (minor), Manhattan College, 1965

Raisa Gorbachev, former first lady of the Soviet Union
Moscow State University, 1954

Swanee Hunt, former US Ambassador to Austria
Bachelor’s Degree, Texas Christian University, 1972

Thomas Jefferson, US President
Bachelor’s Degree, College of William and Mary, 1762

Jack Keane, retired American four-star general
Master’s Degree, Western Kentucky University, 1976

Mohammad Khatami, President of Iran
Bachelor’s Degree, Isfahan University, 1969

John Lewis, civil rights activist and Member of the US House of Representatives
Bachelor’s Degree (Religion and Philosophy), Fisk University, 1967

Robert MacNamara, Secretary of Defense and head of the World Bank
Bachelor’s Degree, University of California Berkeley, 1937

Emmanuel Macron, president of France
Master’s Degree, Paris Nanterre University, 2001

Paul Martin, prime minister of Canada
Bachelor’s Degree, St. Michael’s College at the University of Toronto, 1961

Beverley McLachlin, first female and longest serving Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Alberta, 1965
Master’s Degree, University of Alberta, 1968

Alex Mooney, member of the US House of Representatives (WV-2)
Bachelor’s Degree, Dartmouth College, 1993

Elizabeth Anne Reid, former women’s affairs adviser to Australian Prime Minister and UN program director
Bachelor’s Degree, Australian National University, 1965
Bachelor of Philosophy (Post-Graduate) Degree, Somerville College Oxford, 1970

Max Rose, member of the US House of Representatives
Master’s Degree (Philosophy and Public Policy), London School of Economics, 2009

David Souter, Supreme Court Justice
Bachelor’s Degree, Harvard College, 1963

Fred Thompson, former senator and presidential candidate (and erstwhile actor)
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Memphis, 1964

George F. Will, journalist, author, and political commentator
Bachelor’s Degree, Trinity College, 1962

Karen Lerohl Wilson, lawyer and public policy expert
Bachelor’s Degree, College of William and Mary, 1972

Rabbi Michael Lerner, political activist and editor of Tikkun
Bachelor’s Degree, Columbia University, 1964
PhD, University of California Berkeley, 1972

Pope John Paul II
PhD, Jagiellonian University, 1948

Albert Schweitzer, Nobel Peace Prize winning theologian and missionary
PhD, University of Tübingen, 1899

Suroosh Alvi, co-founder of Vice Media
Bachelor’s Degree, McGill University, 1991

Barbara Amiel, Lady Black of Crossharbour, journalist and writer
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Toronto, 1963

John Chancellor, journalist
Philosophy major (no degree earned), University of Illinois Navy Pier, 1947-1948

Chris Hayes, journalist, political commentator, and MSNBC host
Bachelor’s Degree, Brown University, 2001

Mark Hulbert, finance journalist and market analyst
Bachelor’s Degree, Haverford College, 1977
Master’s Degree, University of Oxford, 1979

Tamara Keith, journalist and NPR White House correspondent
Bachelor’s Degree, University of California Berkeley, 1999

Kathryn Jean Lopez, journalist, political commentator, and National Review Online editor
Bachelor’s Degree, Catholic University of America, 1997

Anne Morrissy Merick, journalist and Vietnam War reporter
Bachelor’s Degree, Cornell University, 1955

Markos Moulitsas Zúniga, founder of Daily Kos and co-founder of Vox Media
Bachelor’s Degree, Northern Illinois University, 1996

Stone Phillips, broadcaster
Bachelor’s Degree, Yale University, 1977

Ben Taub, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist
Bachelor’s Degree, Princeton University, 2014

Katy Tur, journalist
Bachelor’s Degree, University of California Santa Barbara, 2005

Juan Williams, journalist
Bachelor’s Degree, Haverford College, 1976

Arian Foster, former American football player (Houston Texans)
Bachelor’s Degree, University of Tennessee, 2009

Pat Haden, former American football player (St. Louis Rams) and USC athletic director
Bachelor’s Degree (Philosophy, Politics, and Economics), Oxford University, 1978

Phil Jackson, NBA coach
Bachelor’s Degree, University of North Dakota, 1967

Bruce Lee, martial artist
Studied philosophy at University of Washington (no degree earned), 1961–1964

Michael McCaskey, president/chairman of the Chicago Bears
Bachelor’s Degree, Yale University, 1965

Simone de Beauvoir, writer, philosopher, and political activist
Master’s Degree, Sorbonne University in Paris, 1929

Pearl Buck, Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winning writer
Bachelor’s Degree, Randolph-Macon Women’s College, 1914

Mary Higgins Clark, novelist
Bachelor’s Degree, Fordham University, 1979

Susanna Clarke, Hugo Award-winning author
Bachelor’s Degree, St. Hilda’s College Oxford, 1981

Alain de Botton, writer, philosopher, and television presenter
Master’s Degree, King’s College London, 1992

Philip K. Dick, science fiction writer
Studied philosophy (no degree earned), University of California Berkeley, 1949

E.L. Doctorow, novelist (Ragtime)
Bachelor’s Degree, Kenyon College, 1952

Alice Domurat Dreger, author (Galileo’s Middle Finger), activist, and former professor
PhD (History and Philosophy of Science), Indiana University Bloomington, 1995

Umberto Eco, author (The Name of the Rose)
Laurea (Master’s) Degree, University of Turin, 1954

T.S. Eliot, Nobel Prize-winning essayist, publisher, playwright, and poet
Bachelor’s Degree, Harvard College, 1909
Continued philosophical studies at Harvard and Sorbonne University in Paris

Ken Follett, author (Eye of the Needle)
Bachelor’s Degree, University College London, 1970

Michael Frayn, playwright (Copenhagen) and novelist
Bachelor’s Degree, Emmanuel College Cambridge, 1957

Rebecca Newberger Goldstein, author (Plato at the Googleplex) and MacArthur Fellow
Bachelor’s Degree, Barnard College, 1972
PhD, Princeton University, 1977

Sam Harris, author (The End of Faith) and co-founder of Project Reason
Bachelor’s Degree, Stanford University, 2000